European Space Agency Microbial Strain Collection
Within the ESA founded project “BioDiv” the Herschel mission was used for extensive analysis of the bacterial diversity and bioburden of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms. Such studies are a crucial part of Planetary Protection requirements.
Planetary protection is the term that describes the aim of protecting solar system bodies from contamination by terrestrial life, and protecting Earth from possible life forms that may be returned from other solar system bodies. Regulations are based on obligations identified in the United Nations Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies, and advice provided by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR).
The necessary detection and enumeration of microbial contamination on spacecraft and in spacecraft assembly facilities is mainly based on classical cultivation methods. This gives an indication of the real bioburden, because only those microorganisms can be enumerated that are able to grow under the selected conditions; that are viable, cultivatable vegetative cells or spores.
The biodiversity of microbial communities on spaceflight hardware and in associated assembly facilities is evaluated in addition to the simple enumeration of microbial contamination to challenge new tools to assess, control and reduce the biological contamination, monitor the biological contamination control programme for controlled environments, and establish cross-contamination potential with scientific instruments on a spacecraft.
All strains were preliminary identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis using partial or nearly complete sequences. The EzTaxon Server, containing the 16S rRNA gene sequences of type strains of prokrayotes, was used for similarity based identification.
The available strains are listed here.
Project Partner at the DSMZ
Gram Positive Bacteria Aerobic, microaerophilic and obligate anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria from various taxa such as: Order Bacillales, Bifidobacteriales, "Lactobacillales", Coriobacteriales; suborder Micrococcineae, Propionibacterineae; family: Actinomycetaceae.